A Parent's Resource Guide to Learning Disorders

Learning disorders can affect a child’s abilities with spoken language, writing, math or reasoning. Some children have no problem reading sentences, but cannot comprehend the meaning of the content. Others cannot read the sentence at all, but have no trouble understanding the material when it is explained to them. Both of these scenarios are variations of learning disorders. There are many different kinds, each with its own unique cognitive restrictions.

Sensory Processing Disorders (PDF)

Learning Disabilities in Children

Developmental Reading Disorder

Academic Accommodations


Reading is very much a task of order. When a syllable is read, the brain assigns it a sound. People with dyslexia have difficulty making this association. While the stereotypical perception of dyslexia is that people see and read backwards, this has only been the case in a small number of scenarios. Some scientists believe that 15% of the population may have some form of dyslexia.

Center for Dyslexia

Dissecting Dyslexia

Youth and Dyslexia (PDF)

Dyslexia FAQ

What is Dyslexia?

Dyslexia and Reading Problems

Dyslexia Description and Definition


ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is one of the most common problems affecting children today. Children with ADHD have difficulty staying focused and paying attention both in class and at home. They are also hyperactive and have trouble controlling their behavior when they are excited.


ADHD Articles

Learning Disabilities and ADHD

What is ADHD? (PDF)


Disorders on the Autism Spectrum cause different levels of social, emotional and communicative deficiencies. The causes are still unknown, but new information surfaces steadily especially as the disorder becomes more prevalent. Autism currently affects one in every 100 children born and the numbers keep rising. It is much more common in boys, but many girls are on the spectrum too.

ASDs, what you should know

Autism Resources


Autism Spectrum Disorders


As the inclusion of the phrase “graph” might hint, dysgraphia is a writing disorder. There are two main types: language-based and non-language based. Generally, children with the disorder are unable to write legibly despite their best efforts. Their words may appear unfinished or contain varying and inappropriate letters. What is both interesting and troubling about dysgraphia is that many of the students who suffer from it are highly intelligent and have no other cognitive problems. They produce thought and carry conversations with no obstacle.

Dysgraphia Learning Disorder

Tips for Parents


When Writing Hurts (PDF)


While dysgraphia is a writing disorder, dyspraxia is a disorder of speech and other motor skills. Children with dyspraxia are unable to control their muscles in coordination and therefore have difficulty producing words, zipping their pants, etc. While some children are born with the disorder, it can also be developed as the result of a stroke or brain trauma. Needless to say, people of all ages suffer from dyspraxia.

The Best Dyspraxia Program Ever (PDF)

Dyspraxics (Checklist)

Verbal Dyspraxia – What is it, What are the Symptoms?

Verbal Dyspraxia (PDF)



Hyperlexic children actually have high IQs and develop reading skills faster than their peers. Despite the ability to read the language, they have difficulty comprehending it. Essentially, they can tell you the story but not what it means. If you ask a hyperlexic child about the content, they will struggle to answer. Hyperlexia is found on the Autism Spectrum and is often diagnosed in conjunction with other autistic disorders.

Language and Learning Disorders: Hyperlexia

Hyperlexia (PDF)

Hyperlexia Children

Hyperlexia in a Four Year Old Boy (PDF)


Have you ever had trouble remembering a particular word? Aphasia is a language disorder where people have trouble remembering almost every word they use. Their ability to summon words is hindered, yet they completely recognize the reason why they want to use the word (to describe a person, etc.). Aphasia is caused by damage to the left side of the brain, so it is not uncommon for aphasiac people to also suffer from weakness or paralysis in the right side of their body which the left brain controls.   

Aphasia Quiz

Nonfluent Aphasias


Aphasia Research Center

Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Processing Disorder, or APD, is a defect that restricts a child’s ability to filter and process sounds. For this reason, listening becomes a struggle and mishearing is rather common. Background noises can also become burdensome as a child with APD cannot determine which sounds are directed at him or her, and which are not. Children with APD need an abundance of time to process the information they are given and many will respond with the wrong information.

What is APD?

Auditory Processing Disorder in Children (PDF)

Hearing Loss and Auditory Processing Disorders

Visual Processing Disorder

Basically, any cognitive issue that relates to the people and objects an individual sees is considered a Visual Processing Disorder. They have nothing to do with eyesight. There are a number of different Visual Processing Disorders. For example, Visual Discrimination restricts a child from distinguishing between two similar objects. Children with a Visual Processing Disorder may also have trouble determining order or distance.

Visual Processing Disorders in Detail

Visual Processing Disorder

Types of Visual Processing

Common Areas of Difficulty

National Center for Learning Disabilities (PDF)